"certain types of households are more vulnerable to price risk. when prices increase 10%, there is a small 2.7% reduction in caloric intake for well-off land-owning households. For more vulnerable, landless households, calories decrease by 6.2%.
Interestingly, the difference in price responsiveness between landless and land-owning households is much more dramatic than the difference between below- and above-median expenditure households (column 3 vs. column 4), who respond similarly to variations in prices. As expected, owning land (and being able to grow food when prices are high) substantially lowers responsiveness to price risk in a way that even being above-median expenditure does not."
"for land-owning households, a 10% increase in rice prices reduced calories by the same amount (2.2%) before and after the expansion. For the landless households - one of the groups that the PDS is trying to help - the difference was dramatic. Before the expansion, a 10% increase in prices reduced calories by 7.6%. After the expansion, the same price increase reduced calories by only 2.2%, the exact same amount as the land-owning households."