The gender gap in performance is due to the gender composition of games. When a woman plays against another woman of the same ability, she has a 50% chance of winning. But when a woman plays against a man of the same ability, she only has a 46% chance. This is equivalent to a handicap of 30 Elo points when the opponent is a man.
when a group suffers from a negative stereotype, the anxiety experienced trying to avoid that stereotype, or just being aware of it, increases the probability of confirming the stereotype.
Overall, lower number of women in top positions or fields like academia or chess seems to be due to four factors: i) social conditioning which discourages girls from early age; ii) brute force of male numbers - if more males participate, there is greater probability of male representation at the top. For instance, if only 1/3rd of students appearing for an exam are females, there can be only be so much females in the top.; iii) discrimination during the process; iv) negative effect of anxiety created due to responsibility to break stereotypes (as illustrated in the above study).
Nothing to do with genetics that makes males being inherently more intelligent than women.
3. GFCF is on a continuous decline: Gross Fixed Capital "measures the value of acquisitions of new or existing fixed assets by the business sector, governments and "pure" households (excluding their unincorporated enterprises) less disposals of fixed assets. GFCF is a component of the expenditure on gross domestic product (GDP), and thus shows something about how much of the new value added in the economy is invested rather than consumed."
Following graph from Bloomberg Quint
As one can notice GFCF is on a continuous decline since Q1 of 2015. It's a worrying sign of the state of the economy.