For Esteban Bullrich, the minister in charge of education from 2010 to 2015, the initial aim was to make sure that pupils were being taught. Teachers were spending 12-15 days per year on strike, or about 7% of the time they should be in class, according to his calculations. To try to reduce those absences he first made his mobile-phone number public and began fielding calls directly from angry teachers. He extended the school day.
Then he offered teachers something of a deal: higher salaries in exchange for taking their job more seriously. The grip of unions in deciding promotions was loosened. And he made teacher training more rigorous and practical.
This is for low performing countries suffering from capacity constraints. For countries that don't have capacity constraints, the policies that are implemented using the capacity may be a constraint. They require a different approach to reform.