"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest."
"During the 1970s, China was a centrally‐planned economy in which administered prices were a mechanism of generating rents and transfers to groups favored by the Communist regime. Price liberalization and the removal of obligatory grain deliveries to the state would generate significant efficiency gains in the countryside, where the bulk of the population lived. But it would come at the expense of depriving the state of its tax base, and urban workers of their cheap rations of food. By the standards of basic political economy models, these strong redistributive consequences provide an adequate explanation of why efficiency‐enhancing reforms were resisted by the Chinese leadership.
But the Chinese government was able to devise a short‐cut..................
It is also important to note that addressing issues like enhancing the quality of education don't have clear-cut checklist of solutions. The nature of the problem is not as that where huge gains can be achieved by just pushing the governments once for a brief moment to do certain tasks, the way one could imagine about the 91 reforms, where a government with its few decisions for brief moment yielded drastic change. One must realize that it's not the case with issues like education. There are no pre-defined solutions. Solutions have to be evolved with constant iteration with a singleminded focus on the goal. It involves addressing many foreseen and unforeseen challenges in the journey. It can't be achieved with the mindset of standard incentive framework, where the expectation is that governments will only work till there is an incentive. If that's the case, even if there is an incentive in terms of public pressure, governments will either do something for showcase while not addressing the roots of the problem or governments can give up midway as new challenges emerge and the pressure diffuses. It isn't practically feasible to hold the government accountable on every single day to prevent that from happening.